Basic Cooking Methods With Dry Heat and Moist Heat
Cooking methods can be classified into ‘Moist Heat’ and ‘Dry Heat’, The Moist heat methods are those in which the heat is conducted to the food products through boiling water (Eg: water, stock, sauce, etc) or by steam. Dry heat methods are those in which the heat is conducted without moisture i.e. by hot air, hot metal, radiation, hot fat, etc.
The Executive Chef and the Sous Chef should be responsible for ensuring that appropriate food cooking methods are followed by the kitchen staff. The hotel training and HRD department should develop and implement proper written Kitchen SOP’s to ensure the same is implemented correctly throughout all the food preparation outlets.
Cooking Methods Standard Procedures:
- Moist heat cooking methodA method in which the heat is conducted to the food product through water by boiling or steam eg: Boiling, blanching, steaming, parboiling, stewing, braising, etc.
- To boil means to cook in a liquid that is bubbling rapidly, the water temperature is about 212º F (100º C).
- To simmer means to cook in a liquid that is bubbling very gently. the temperature is about 185º to 205º F (85-96º C).
- To poach means to cook in a liquid, usually a small amount, that is hot but not bubbling.
- Temperature is about 160-180º F [71 to 82º C]
- To blanch means to cook an item partially and very briefly, usually in water.
- To steam means to cook by direct contact with steam.
- Stew means simmering food in a small amount of liquid and is usually served with the food.
- Parboil means to cook foods partially in a boiling or simmering liquid.
- Braise means to cook foods that are covered in a small amount of liquid and usually done after preliminary browning (although occasionally without browning as well.)
- Sweet means to cook slowly in fat browning occasionally under a cover.
- Reduce means to cook by simmering or boiling until the liquid quantity is decreased.
- Deglaze is to swirl a liquid in a sauté pan, roast pan, or another pan.
- Dry heat cooking method
- Dry heat methods are those in which the heat is conducted without moisture eg: baking, barbeque, broiling, deep fry, glazing, etc.
- Baking means cooking foods by simmering them and then exposing them to hot dry air. It is similar to roast but it usually applies to bread, pastries, vegetables, and fish.
- Barbeque means cooking in a grill over host coal, or an enclosed container. It is often done with a seasoned marinade or basting sauce.
- Broil means cooking with radiation from above.
- Deep fry means the foods are submerged in hot fat.
- Fry means the foods are cooked in a hot fat.
- Glaze means giving an additional layer on the surface of a food by applying a sauce, aspic, sugar, or icing, or by browning or melting under a broiler or Salamander or in an oven.
- Griddle means to cook on a flat, solid cooking surface called a griddle.
- Grill means to cook in an oven grid over a heat source.
- Pan-broil means to cook uncovered foods on a skillet or sauté pan without fat.
- Pan frying means cooking a moderate amount of fat in the uncovered pan.
- En Papillote means the foods are wrapped in paper or foil for cooking so that foods can be baked or steamed in their moisture.
- Sauté means to cook quickly in a small amount of fat.
- Sear means to brown cook the surface of food quickly at a high temperature.
Training Summary questions:
Q1. What is the purpose of this SOP?
Q2. What are the two basic cooking methods?
Q3. How to simmer the food while cooking?
Q4. What is glazing or glaze?
Q5. Give a few examples of the dry heat cooking method.
SOP Number: Kitchen / F&B Production SOP – 19 Department: Kitchen / Food Production - Basic Cooking Methods Date Issued: 1-Dec-2018 Time to Train: 20 Minutes