Standard Operating Procedure for Engineering Water Treatment Plant

SOP Number: Hotel Engineering SOP  – 04

Department: Engineering and Maintenance

Date Issued: 13–Feb-2018

Time to Train: 30 Minutes

Water Treatment Plant Operation Standard Procedure:

The Water Treatment Plant consists of the following:

1) Raw water filters.

  • It is used to remove the particular impurities or the suspended impurities from the untreated (hard water) i.e. raw water.

  • The raw water filter requires backwash process to maintain efficient flow of water. With required quantity and pressure.

2) Water Softener Plant.

  • Water softner plant is used to reduce the temporary hardness in the water.

  • The soft water is being used at many places as it helps to avoid any damages to equipment used in the hotel like boilers and also other equipment where hot/cold water is regularly used.

  • The softener used in the Hotels is a cation base.

  • A chemical change takes place and softens the water by removing calcium and magnesium salts, which creates the temporary hardness of the water.

  • It is a cold process basically known as Ion Exchange.

  • The softener requires regeneration time to time to have a good quality of soft water throughout the system.

  • Before doing regeneration, ensure that the raw water and domestic water tanks are also full.

  • When the water hardness exceeds 80 ppm. Engineering team should perform the regeneration of softener.

3) Activated Carbon Filter.

  • Activated carbon filters are generally employed in the process of removing organic compounds and/or extracting free chlorine from water, thereby making the water suitable for discharge.

  • Eliminating organics in potable water, such as humic and fulvic acid.

  • Prevents chlorine in the water from chemically reacting with the acids and forming trihalomethanes, a class of known carcinogens.

4) Hydropneumatic System.

  • The Hydropneumatic System is a modernization of the older gravity tank method of water supply, Its main purpose is to control or boost a limited supply pressure to a higher or to a more uniform value.

  • A hydropneumatic tank contains pressurized air and water.

  • It does not have a bladder and air is in direct contact with the water.

  • The compressed air acts as a cushion exerting or absorbing pressure.

  • As the flow begins, one of the pumps starts at low speed and as the demand increases the pump speeds up until it reaches the full RPM level

  • At this point, the second pump becomes operational (start).

  • The speed of the two pumps varies till they reach the full RPM.At this stage, the next pump starts.

  • The same sequence is repeated for the additional pumps and each pump, in turn, changes over automatically and maintains the system pressure according to the demand, time and fault.

  • When the water demand is zero the system shuts-off automatically and when the system is running continuously, the lead pump alternates based on the time set.

Back Wash Procedure:

  • It is the reverse process of normal supply through the filter.

  • Backwashing of the filter required when the filter bed gets chock by determining the water pressure falling across the filter inlet and outlet.
  • It should not exceed 5 psi in the bed by installed pressure gauges.

  • In the normal course, the water enters the top of the filter bed and comes out from the bottom of the filter bed.

Training Summary questions:

Q1. What all consists of a water treatment plant?

Q2. Explain the sequence of backwash procedure?

Q3. What is a Hydropneumatic System?

Q4. Explain the functionality of activated carbon filter?

Q5. When to do a regeneration of the filters?