Different Type of Stock Used in Cooking - White Stock, Brown Stock, Vegetable Stock, Fish Stock

Types of Stock - White | Brown | Vegetable | Fish

What is the definition of stock?

A stock is a flavourful liquid prepared by simmering meaty bones from meat and poultry, seafood or and vegetables in water with aromatics until their flavour, aroma, colour, body and nutritive value is extracted. The liquid is then used for the preparation of soup, sauce, stew and also as braising and simmering cooking medium for vegetables and grains.

There are four basic kinds of stock/fond used in hotels and restaurants: 1. White stock (Fond Blanc), 2. Brown stock (Fond Brun), 3.Vegetable or neutral stock (Fond Maigre) and 4.Fish Stock (Fume de Poisson). The classification of the stock generally refers to the contents or method used to prepare the stock and not necessarily to the colour of the stock/fond.

The word “fond” comes from the word “foundation”. Just as a foundation is a base for a house, fond is the base for much of cooking. Almost every culinary preparation requires a fond. For all practical purposes, “stock” and “fond” have the same meaning.

1. White stock (Fond Blanc):

  • White stock/fond is made with white meat or beef, veal bones, chicken carcasses, and aromatic vegetables.

  • The bones or meat are put in cold liquid and slowly brought to a boil.

  • The mirepoix (a flavouring base of diced vegetables is sweated in suitable fat/pork fat) and then added to the liquid before it develops any colour.

  • The mixture is reduced to a simmer to finish cooking.

  • This type of stock is used for white sauce, blanquettes, fricassee, and poached dishes etc.

Method of Preparation and Ingredients for White Stock (Chicken, Veal, Beef)

Type of Stock - white stock

Required Ingredients for a yield of 15 GAL / 56 LTRS:

  • Bones Cut Small - 60LB / 27 KG
  • Cold Water - 18 GAL / 68 LTRS
  • Butter - 1 LB / 450 GRM
  • Thyme - 1 TBSP
  • Bouquet Garni - 1 LARGE
  • Bay Leaf - 10-15 EA (EACH)
  • For mirepoix:
    • Onion Diced - 3LB / 1.36 KG
    • Carrot diced - 3LB / 1.36 KG
    • Celery diced - 3LB / 1.36 KG
    • Leek diced - 3LB / 1.36 KG

Preparation Method for White Stock:

  • Place Bones in a stockpot and cover then with the cold water.

  • Bring Slowly to a boil and skim the scum.

  • Sauté mirepoix in butter until golden.

  • Add sautéed mirepoix and aromatics to stock.

  • Simmer 5-6 hours for chicken and 8-10 Hours for Veal.

  • Pass through a fine strainer.

  • Label the stock container.

  • Cool and refrigerate.


2. Brown stock (Fond Brun):

  • The Brown stock is made with beef, veal, and poultry meat and bones.

  • The bones are roasted until golden in colour, not burnt. (Burnt bones and mirepoix will damage the stock’s flavour and colour).

  • The mirepoix is added when the bones are three-quarters roasted; tomato product may also be added.

  • When the bones and mirepoix are golden in colour, the cold liquid is added and the mixture is slowly brought to a boil, then reduced to a simmer to finish cooking.

  • This stock is used for brown sauces and gravies, braised dishes, and meat glazes.

Method of Preparation and Ingredients for Brown Stock (Veal, Beef)

Type of Stock - brown stock

Required Ingredients for a yield of 15 GAL / 56 LTRS:

  • Bones Cut Small - 60LB / 27 KG
  • Cold Water or Remouillage - 18 GAL / 68 LTRS
  • Tomato Product - Optional
  • Thyme - 1 TBSP
  • Bouquet Garni - 1 LARGE
  • Bay Leaf - 10-15 EA
  • For mirepoix:
    • Onion Diced - 3LB / 1.36 KG
    • Carrot diced - 3LB / 1.36 KG
    • Celery diced - 3LB / 1.36 KG
    • Leek diced - 3LB / 1.36 KG

Preparation Method for Brown Stock:

  • Place Bones in a roasting pan and brown in a 350F oven.

  • When Bones are 3/4 done, place mirepoix over the bones and finish browning.

  • When browned, remove bones and mirepoix and place in a stockpot with aromatics.

  • Remove the fat from the roasting pan.

  • Deglaze roasting pan with water or Remouillage and add to the stockpot.

  • Add the remaining cold water or Remouillage to cover the bones.

  • Bring to a boil reduce to a simmer and skim.

  • Summer for 8 to 10 hours.

  • Pass through a fine strainer.

  • Label the stock container.

  • Cool and refrigerate.

Remouillage: The word translates as a “rewetting”, which is a good way to think of the way that remouillage is made. Bones used to prepare a “primary stock” are reserved after the first stock is strained away from the bones. The bones are then covered with water, and a “secondary stock” is prepared.


3. Vegetable or Neutral stock (Fond de légume):

  • Is a neutral stock composed of vegetables and aromatic herbs sautéed gently in butter, then cooked in the liquid.

  • Often the less desirable parts of the vegetables (such as carrot skins and celery ends) are used for preparing the veg stock since they will not be eaten.

  • This relatively new type of stock is gaining in popularity in the culinary world.

  • Vegetable stock is used generally in vegetarian cooking and volutes.

  • It is often used as a replacement for bouillon and other meat stocks, like chicken stock.

Method of Preparation and Ingredients for Vegetable Stock

Type of Stock - Vegetable stock

Required Ingredients for a yield of 15 GAL / 56 LTRS:

  • Vegetable trimmings
  • Cold Water
  • Thyme
  • Bouquet Garni
  • Bay Leaf
  • For mirepoix:
    • Onion Diced
    • Carrot diced
    • Celery diced

Preparation Method for Vegetable Stock:

  • Use approximately equal proportions of vegetables and water.

  • The basic ingredients of a vegetable stock are vegetable, herbs and spices.

  • The vegetable stock needs to be simmered only 30 to 45 minutes.

  • Pass through a fine strainer.

  • Label the stock container.

  • Cool and refrigerate.


4. Fish Stock (Fume de Poisson):

  • Fish stock is categorised separately from the other basic stocks because of its limited usage.

  • The basis of fish preparation is fumet or fond.

  • It has been said that all fish produce a fumet are equal. Some fish produce better quality stock than others.

  • The result from some fish are stocks which are too gelatinous and fishy tasting.

  • Fish are which are oily yield stock that has a bitter taste or that is milky.

  • Classical preparation calls for the bones of specific fish for fumet.

  • Dover sole, turbot, brill and whiting are recommended for their superior flavour.

  • However, the important thing is that the fish is fresh and that its flesh is white.

Method of Preparation and Ingredients for Fish stock (Veal, Beef)

Type of Stock - fish stock

Required Ingredients for a yield of 3 GAL / 11 LTRS:

  • Fishbones with heads - 12LB / 5.4 KG
  • Cold Wate - 2 GAL / 7 LTRS
  • Butter - 2 OZ / 56 GRM
  • Thyme - 1 Pinch
  • Bay Leaf - 2 EA(Each)
  • For mirepoix:
    • Onion Diced - 8 OZ / 250 GRM
    • Celery diced - 4 OZ/ 113 GRM
    • Leek diced - 4 OZ / 113 GRM

Preparation Method for Fish Stock:

  • Clean fish bones and head in cold running water.

  • Break the large bones.

  • Remove any black skin, blood clots and gills.

  • Sauté mirepoix and aromatics in butter.

  • Cover and let sweat in their own juices.

  • Add fish bones, cover and let sweat for a few minutes.

  • Add white wine and cover with cold water.

  • Bring to a slow boil and simmer uncovered for up to 45 minutes.

  • Pass through a fine strainer.

  • Label the stock container.

  • Cool and refrigerate.


 

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